The ABC’s of Recognizing the Bully Boss

August 20, 2012

A is for Always attacking the Target, relentless, harassment. Generally there is one target per location or work site where the bully works. This target catches hell from the time they enter the office until they leave. It can start with something as simple as nit picking your work, to going so far as to intentionally make small mistakes on your paycheck or big ones.  The Modus Operandi of the Bully is for the bullying to be continuous so as to wear you down, stress you out, and hopefully cause you to quit.

B is for the bullying behavior which starts to precede the bully ever entering the room. If the bully has been around awhile, everyone knows the bullies’ methods of harassing and trust me they do not want to be the one to be the next target. Therefore, the new person may be thrown under the bus of the bully in order for others to save their own hide. Be careful in whom you confide if you are doing anything which could be embellished or exaggerated by your enemies.

C is for the callousness the bully has while tormenting the target. After causing the target to become ill, there will be no compassion nor empathy from the bully. The bully is cold, and lacks empathy or the capacity for empathy. The bully is a great impostor however, and can pretend to be empathetic, caring, or whatever they need to be in order to win the confidence of others, especially their target.

Of course there are many more letters and many more skills in the bullies knapsack of tools used to torment. But these will give you a quick and handy reminder when you are wondering if you have just encountered a bully!


Bully Boss Behavior is Contagious

August 10, 2012

It is basic psychological theory, that, behavior rewarded is repeated most of the time. Behavior that is punished can be extinguished.

Based upon that very simplistic theory let’s look at the bully behavior we see in our daily experiences, in the home, playground and workplace.
First, in the home, we have bullies often among siblings, or even spouses. Children often witness such behavior and make their own conclusions as to whether the behavior of bullying brought rewards to the bully and punishment for the bully’s victim. Children emulate usually what they experience and they also can try to do the opposite of what the bully does if they feel the behavior was wrong despite the outcome. Children who grow up in a home where there has been abuse, experience a bully who is physically abusive or one who is verbally or emotionally abusive. In either case the abuser is both an abuser and a bully.

The child leaves home to school and there will either become like the bully at home or choose to not be a bully. Hopefully, it will be the later.

The bully in the workplace is provided with ample targets to practice their preferred style of interacting with people. If the bully is in a position of authority (supervisor, director, CEO), the extent of their potentially harmful bullying behavior can impact the entire organization; left unmonitored it could lead to systemic practices that trickle down the organizational ladder.


Organizational Bullying has been a part of the systemic practices of this educational organization since a major promotion of a female bully. This bully is in charge of several thousand employees and the ripples of her tyranny are widespread.


How much damage does the bully have to create before she is stopped? Let’s look at what this bully has so far accomplished on her tyrannical path to power.

Position is key for a Bully of this stature, who easily sees in her narcissistic mind, optimum opportunity for a reign of terror. Using this stature and position she successfully created a persona of one to be feared, one with the power to fire employees on the spot should she so choose. Employees would literally shake and tremble when they heard she was to visit their campus.

This image of a bully so powerful was one that this Bully, Ms K, would relish, brought her much satisfaction just knowing mere mention of her name brought employees to their knees to do whatever she beckoned them to do.

The workplace atmosphere across all of her dominion (dozens of campuses and hundreds of teachers, managers, and administrators) was one where backstabbing, informing, spying, sabotaging were all encouraged and rewarded. The encouragement and rewards came in the form of small perks (no charges against sick leave or vacation time, free access to acquiring new computers, supplies, etc. not available to other staff, trips to conferences, promotions without undergoing the ordinary and required application process, etc.).

Those who chose to not obey or follow the mandates, of Ms K. reaped the whirlwind of her toxic mental state; she would give one of her trusted minions or pawns the task of harassing, spying, etc. and then use whatever information retrieved to reprimand the target, even leading to their termination of employment.

Currently, Ms K is under investigation for the second or third time in her tenure as a Director. Using the tactics mentioned she has managed to control nearly the entire staff under her supervision. And, due to the magnitude of this power she has disrupted lives, destroyed educational opportunities of children already challenged academically, and a community.

(to be con’t)

Do Organizational Leaders Have Responsibility to Workers during the Nation’s Economic Crisis?

July 26, 2012

Before responding to this question, let’s think about times in the past when worker’s have been asked by employers to give more of themselves during the organization’s crisis of any nature.

 Several examples come to mind most recently when employees have been asked to work longer hours for the same pay (i.e. teachers, nurses, state workers).

 And, during natural disasters aren’t civil servants (i.e. firemen, policemen, doctors, nurses) asked to give a bit more of their time, sacrifice their personal off duty time?

 But, notwithstanding all of the above, haven’t you witnessed on an ordinary day, ordinary workers giving extra time, effort, out of pride and admiration for their job, organization or leadership? I have witnessed this frequently in the County of Los Angeles, as well as in the non-profit sector. And, many times this behavior went unrecognized, unrewarded, but the workers continued to perform the same nonetheless.

 So, now I ask this question with the above information as context: Do Organizational Leaders Have Responsibility to Workers during the Nation’s Economic Crisis? My response is a resounding “YES!”  And, even if it is for self-serving interests, they should do this.  And, the reason is because it will affect the organization’s bottom line one way or another.

 It’s Basic Psychology 101 to respond to those who are crisis helps them to better function and overcome the deleterious affects of the trauma or crisis. Failure to do so will affect the person’s productivity either by increased absences, poor performance, increased health issues, poor attitude, etc.

 Many workers today are impacted by the unrelenting economic devastation this country has withstood since 2009. And, though rarely discussed it is taking a toll on families, relationships, psychological and physical health.

 Organizations CAN make a difference by showing employees they do care, authentically about the well-being of their workers and the reward will be returned double or triple fold.

They Set the World’s Economy on Fire, Now they Watch it Burn!

September 29, 2011

They (#TBTF) SET the Economy on FIRE, THEN let it BURN!

There is a consensus and very few if any would disagree, that the Economy suffered globally due to International Big Banks and their chicanery via creative investment vehicles. Foremost and most notorious of those vile investments – MBS (mortgage backed securities) spawned from the predatory lenders and Wall Street, sleeping together so-to-speak.

From the Loins of Predatory Lenders, artificially manufactured product of the ethically debased relationship between Too Big to Fail Banks and Wall Street, came The Securitization of Mortgages and Special Purpose Vehicles (SPV). The lure to investors were investments which would be bankruptcy remote and at the same time tax exempt. The lure to the Big Banks? More Money in More Ways than Anyone could ever fathom.

The Big Banks had every possible way money could be made covered! If homeowners went into foreclosure they got paid in ten different ways or more; if they didn’t go into foreclosure they still got paid. There was not one insurance policy
But sometimes as many as 20 insurance policies on one home!

But, the real kicker is that the mortgage servicers masqueraded as the owners and no one thought that it was important to let the homeowner know who actually owned their home!

Then the avalanche of foreclosures began. Homeowners started asking for relief from these predatory loans through loan modifications. Instead of being given offers to ameliorate their financial woes, they were sent on what amounted to “scavenger hunts” combined with a series of “mother may I” fruitless hurdles. When after months of desperation their pleas for relief went no where, they would be told “only the investors can approve” of any changes in your mortgage, the cat was out of the bag. Suddenly people started asking, “Can I talk to the owners of my mortgage?” And, they were shocked to be told, “The investors do not talk to homeowners”. And, then is when most folks learned that the gorilla at the door knocking and hounding them for late payments was none other than BILL COLLECTORS, and not owners of their mortgage!

After several years of millions of homeowners loosing their homes through foreclosure, the economic domino effect was predictable. First, millions loose their homes, then loss of jobs and small business extinctions, and the US economy as well as the European economy due to the globalization of our economy.

Watching America and other countries’ economies burn to the ground have not deterred the Money Starved Junkies from continuing the pillaging of the world via the working people of the world. Today, there is virtually no one anywhere of working classes not suffering immeasurably from the rape and pillaging of the Too Big To Fail Banks and Wall Street.

Yet, somehow despite the hundreds of thousands of lawsuits filed across the globe against these fraudsters, for every violation imaginable few if ANY have been arrested of those responsible for this economic holocaust.

There is not one morally or ethically based criminal out of the ranks of the Too Big To Fail. Had their been at least one at the top in power to say “No More!” It could have been minimized; but as it stands the blight continues and earth continues to be desecrated by the mere existence of their footsteps on American Soil.

Onward to the Battlefield, or Court houses

There are battles being fought to counter these monsters. One fight being waged is in the courtrooms across this country against lenders or pretender lenders by homeowners who have been or are in danger of being foreclosed. Some have won their battles with their criminal servicers, but many more have lost.

The key to winning the “beat down” of the banks in foreclosure is the “strategy”; The Jedi of fighting foreclosures, Attorney Norman Sirak, has a “secret weapon” that is legal, and lethal to the dragons of foreclosure! Norman services clients in most states. He can be reached at

Day of Protest on Wall Street

September 17, 2011

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Fighting Foreclosure Offensively

September 16, 2011

“CRACKING  THE  CODE”  ON Fighting Foreclosure



The Global Financial Crisis was heavily influenced if not intentionally instigated by the Too Big To Fail Banks and Wall Street via Securitized Mortgages.  Most people did not understand what the terms, Securitization, derivatives, Mortgage Backed Securities (MBS),  or Credit Default Swaps (CDS) meant nor how it involved them as homeowners.


I will not go into a seminar on these terms, what they did to our economy nor who the major players are. You can find all of that information from many sources on the internet (I will list them).


More important is the following information if you are in jeopardy of loosing your home in the near future or fear you could possibly due to unemployment, health, etc.

If you find your mortgage payments have or may increase to an amount you will eventually not be able to pay, then you too should know this information.


This initial posting is ONLY to GIVE immediate information necessary for those who may be in imminent danger of loosing their home. More information in updates will be posted to give deeper understanding of this entire Foreclosure nightmare.


First, do not wait until after your home has been sold to wake up and fight. Start today seeking solutions, information, research. There ARE things that can be done, but few will be able to help you if you wait until the twelfth hour.


Second, go to your county recorder’s office, they will assist you in getting your documents on your home. Print these out and ask for certified copies. Make copies of these documents for future use if necessary for exhibits in court.


Third, go home and read your documents. Look at them and see if you have MERS on any of your documents. Look for any information regarding who was the Lender, Trustee, etc. This is information you need to know about your home.


Fourth, Before you hire anyone to help you with your possible lawsuit should you need to file one, know that this individual should be:


  • Knowledgeable in securitization
  • Have verifiable client success
  • Have reasonable fees
  • Not charge a retainer for undisclosed work
  • Not force you into a BK as the ONLY avenue to protect your home
  • Have a verifiable professional background
  • Have a strategy for your case after reviewing your documents


Attorney Norman Sirak has met all of the above qualifications and has done what no one I have found has done.  He keeps it simple, understandable and defensible.  When filing your complaint, if it contains all the fraud these criminals have done, it will probably lose the case for you.


Yes, there is Fraud probably on your mortgage, TILA violations, Forgery, etc. But, will those be the key to open the door to you surviving a Motion for Dismissal? Not necessarily.


Attorney Norman Sirak has “cracked the code” to Defending Foreclosures! How? He has found the Legal “Key” that opens the door for homeowners to back the  “pretender lender” into a corner where they cannot get out!


I interviewed Attorney Sirak and found his strategy was nothing like any of the strategies I have so far found in my research. It was really quite simple in concept but complex in application to the LAWS required by the Courts.


If you are considering defending your home it is best to do it from the offensive position as opposed to the defensive, where the Lender comes after you. And, you never want to start with an attorney then have to change midstream to have another attorney clean up the mess. No one likes going behind someone else’s mistakes, especially attorneys and dressmakers! It makes the job twice as hard.


My suggestion as a NON-ATTORNEY is that you take time to think about your situation, and make note of the latest date you can afford to make a decision on what you will do. Do not wait until you have few alternatives and are in a rush to hire someone. This is how so many people loose thousands of dollars AND still loose their homes. Don’t be caught due to procrastination, the Lenders will love for you to give your house to them!


Please feel free to contact me for more information or follow this blog for updates on “Cracking the Code” on Fighting Foreclosure.


Employees Reveal Grief of Mal-treatment by Organization

December 19, 2010

Last week my benevolent organization felt that there was a need to create the perception that it really cared about the emotional and physical well being of the employees. You see, we had lost two co-workers due to sudden death within one month of each other. It was assumed that this was a devastating occurrence since this had never occurred (two deaths within the same department so close together; two who had seemed to all appearances healthy).

A team of two grief counselors were sent to help us to express our emotions regarding the two sudden deaths. During the small group (13 employees in each group) sessions what was revealed was that the majority of those grieving were not grieving over the deaths of their co workers but instead, over the working conditions they were suffering under and the bullying by some of their supervisors.

The grief counselors were so overwhelmed with the sadness and depression they were not prepared for the level or depths of these emotions. Now, comes the embarrassment by the organization who were given the general consensus of the workers: the organizational morale of its employees was in the toilet and on the brink of total collapse.

So, why would it take an outside consultant to simply sit for only seconds in the midst of 13 strangers, to get them to share the overwhelming grief and feelings of betrayal experienced and caused by the organization?

What the employees learned themselves was how much they all had in common in their feelings of low morale and disdain towards those who they reported to; feelings of being treated differently, targeting, discrimination due to age, disability, race, etc. There were some who were visibly distraught, some in tears, and some enraged at the behavior of those who had at one time seen them so favorable among their peers. Now, they were feeling tossed aside like an old shoe, no longer of value, and disposable.

Some said they felt their treatment by their superiors was intolerable and some were feeling retaliated against for having serious illnesses or disabilities.

Murder by Proxy, a movie that gives the untold stories of many workplace violence cases, is a documentary which tells why it often occurs. In that room, on the day the grief counselors came to help heal I felt that anyone of us could have, given the right situation become a statistic or a person portrayed in that movie.

Injured While Bullied At Work

October 31, 2010

Everyday employees are physically injured at work. Most injured workers do not hesitate to file a worker’s compensation claim for their physically related work injuries. So, why the absence of filing for worker’s compensation when the injury is related to the emotional, psychological or mental well being of the employee? Are these injuries any less damaging to the individual? Does the individual have to take off work? Take medication, or see a doctor? Usually the response is “yes”.

Hundreds of employees enter the workplace each and every day to face a bully boss screaming, undermining, intimidating or berating them in front of co-workers or in isolation. Often this behavior goes on for months or even years before the employee complains or seeks medical attention. Sure, the employee may finally complain to HR regarding the harassment and an investigation may or may not take place. The result of that investigation is rarely in favor of the employee. But, even if the investigation is in favor of the employee what happens to the injured worker’s health treatment?

Any worker injured psychologically, physically, or mentally by a bully boss’ continued harassment/intimidation should seek medical attention and document what has occurred. Failure to take care of the psychological health as well as physical health can result in long term health issues, including but not limited to the following: depression, hypertension, panic attacks, post traumatic syndrome, ulcers, angina, etc.

Every employer must protect their employees’ from work related injuries by making sure that they are insured for such injuries. Worker’s compensation claim forms are available on your state’s website or from your employer.

CASE STUDY: How one organization Investigates Workplace Bully Bosses: NOT

May 4, 2010


Please note CEO’s/HR professionals:

We value your input. If you are an executive or HR professional please share how your organization handles investigations of bully bosses or harassment.  Perhaps your experiences of success can be used for learning organizations.  You can choose to remain anonymous.

This is the first of many case studies I will be sharing informally on the topic of “How organizations handle employee complaints of harassment/bulling by bosses.

This is a third sector Hierarchical educational Organization with over 5,000 culturally diverse employees.

Typically complaints of those staff without union representation are handled in the following manner:

Formal complaint is filed with Human Resources by employee

  1. Individual is interviewed within 2-3 weeks depending the amount of complaints and investigators available. Witnesses are interviewed.
  2. After the formal interview, the employee is told that within 60-90 days they will receive the report which will only give information whether they found the complaint valid or not.  There is no information given as to whether any of the employees were true nor whether any one will be receiving any consequences or follow up.
  3. The employee who complained as a general rule in this specific organization is found to have a complaint that was not substantiated by the investigator.
  4. The investigators are internal and have dual roles, both as HR representatives and as investigators when needed.  These internal investigators are employees who have worked at this organization in various capacities for over 15 years acquiring many long term friends out side of the job, and very close co-worker relationships. All of these relationships among the investigators/HR and those bosses being complained about, serve to discredit the feasibility of objective or impartial investigation results.

(Fall out from such investigations further alienate the complaining party from their colleagues who want no part of being a snitch nor of aligning themselves with a person who is not going to win against the organization.  Now, management considers the complaining worker fair game and even more vulnerable to not winning any support)

Bottom Line:  The organization ALWAYS wins in these investigations but they PAY royally for the privilege.

  • AFTER the investigation this is what occurs typically:
  • The employee is harassed by the immediate supervisor relentlessly.
  • The employee becomes ill as a result and files a worker’s compensation claim.
  • The organization’s insurance carrier, sends the worker to a doctor and that WC doctor turns in a report to the carrier who ALWAYS denies the claim.
  • But, the company expends up to Ten thousand dollars per claim to the initial treating physician.
  • Then, the worker hires a WC attorney. If the WC attorney is really good and knowledgeable about these types of cases, the worker typically is paid on average of ten thousand dollars or more; but the actual amount expended by the insurance carrier is much more.
  • The WC attorney will usually ask for more therapies, etc. for a period of 6 months to one year.  That doctor is then paid by the insurance carrier when the case settles.

Some of these cases go from the WC case being filed to also a Civil case being filed for damages of Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress.  This organization, X, does not ever go to court.  They do not want their dirty laundry aired, so they simply go to mediation and pay out of court.

How many cases and how much money is lost annually on these cases?  I know personally of approximately 20 cases which settled last year and about 10 that are on-going.  You can guess based on the above information the amount of money which is used to squash, cover-up and protect the bully bosses.  Tens of thousands each year, minimally are used for these cases.

The bully bosses who have a reputation are well known, connected to those who do the investigations and to their bosses as well.  This management style is encouraged and promoted silently while openly it is denounced.  As a result the bully bosses receive the message to continue doing what you do and we will back you up.  There is no one held accountable for the actions nor the fall out which results from the continued bullying, and harassing of workers who are targeted due to whatever the bully fancies at the moment.

This case is representative of many other organizations which continue down the path of ignoring and empowering the actions of the bully boss for self-serving purposes which are costly.

Who are these bullies in this organization? Are they highly valued for their expertise, education, relations? These are some of the questions we will address in an upcoming article on “So why is the bully boss still here?”

Marilyn is an organizational consultant, keynote speaker, advocate for dignity and respect for all in the workplace, and author of   “How Organizations Empower the Bully Boss:A criminal in the workplace ” (link:

The Problem with Internal Investigations of Workplace Bully Bosses

April 26, 2010

We encourage HR professionals and Employees to submit topics on which you would like an article written.  This article was inspired by a question from someone who is an internal investigator who asked: “So what is wrong with Internal Investigations?”

Nearly fifteen years ago, I began researching the topic of workplace bullying because of experiences which I encountered in the workplace.  The first time or two I felt it had to be something wrong with me, something I was or was not doing.  But, it was just the opposite. There were things which I was doing too well which became an issue to the targets who were my bosses in several different occupational and organizational settings.  This realization was not immediate but only after years of studying the topic and reading volumes of research and books authored by the experts in the field, including Tim Fields, Stale Einarsen, Pauline Peyton, and many others.

Since that time, having continued to witness and experience first hand the bully boss at his/her worst, I have also authored a book on the topic, entitled, How Organizations Empower the Bully Boss: A criminal in the workplace, June, 2009.  It was my conclusion that bully bosses could not continue to practice their behavior unless it was condoned by the organization itself, either intentionally or by ignoring the behavior thus in either case, empowering the bully.

I also began consulting to organizations so as to bring my knowledge and experience about the plethora of ways bullies have managed to operate in almost a stealth like manner avoiding the attention or suspicion of their leadership.  I also counsel the broken and dispirited individuals called targets who, suffer immeasurably psychologically, financially and spiritually.  Some never regain what they have lost in self esteem, confidence, or emotional stability.  I speak on this topic to organizations who are motivated to change in an effort to decrease the costs associated with this phenomenon called bullying bosses and bullying co-workers. I am what is termed a cultural informant and shadow consultant when called upon and an external investigator.

There is always a conflict of interest when the internal investigation occurs. First, pure and simple there is only six degrees separation between almost anyone we need to use to influence someone; this is a known fact. In the organizational setting where an investigation is to take place anyone associated with doing the investigation who is an employee will be known by someone who knows someone who is being investigated. This is a no win situation for the person complaining and compromises the investigation.  I have seen it in many organizations. The cronyism which exists, favors owed, even enemies who come together to collect on a previous debt or favor.  Who is able to trust anyone internally who is performing the investigation?  None of those individual targets who I have interviewed in recent months.  Not one has said that the organizations’ internal investigation shed any light on the truth nor were any changes made to the bullying culture.

In fact  (Rayner, 2002) data suggest that targets rarely get to know what, if anything, happens as a result of visiting centralized staff such as those in personnel or human resources.  According to Unison (1997, 2000a) more actions occur than such professionals are willing to share with those who have filed complaints. Hoel & Cooper (2000a) also see potential in having occupational health practitioners involved to assess risk of bullying behavior but only if they are able to clarify their relationship with the employer “in order to act more independently.

All (Rayner, 2002) interventions should start at the top, but if bullying is endemic it is likely that the senior managers have survived and participated in a bullying system during their own employment.  This situation may present several problems. Senior mangers or the director may be unwilling to label situations or cultures as bullying. They may be unwilling to devote resources to anti bullying programs, and they may play down the effect that bullying can have and the damage it can cause.  In all instances, hard data can be used to counter these claims. However it is unlikely that senior staff in such a situation will be enthusiastic about running a survey on bullying in order to get local evidence.

Policy and procedures can be ineffective, and one should not underestimate the ability (conscious or otherwise) of senior managers to undermine the process!  One  (Rayner) of the most undermining systems we have observed is what is termed ‘vacuum management’.  This is where decisions fail to be made.  Senior managers may hope that by not giving an answer , the situation will go away, and sometimes does.  Of course many staff will know about their tactics. Unfortunately this lack of action can lead to staff having no confidence in senior managers’ willingness or ability to combat bullying at work and unfortunately in some instances this is very well founded.

Internal investigators are usually the choice of organizations when an employee has a complaint of bullying, harassment, etc.  The obvious reasons for the organization preferring internal investigators are that, first, they are convenient and easily accessible to those who are to be interviewed, they are knowledgeable about the organizational culture, but most importantly they save the organization money.  Another reason is that in some organizations where complaints are frequent due to the organizational culture of bullying, that it allows the organization to have more control over the final analysis of the investigation.  Investigations where the culture promotes the behavior which is being complained about, will be either ignored, neutralized or flipped to make the target the bad guy.

Although it appears that the use of an internal investigation is more convenient, less costly and does what is needed, nothing could be further from the truth.  Internal investigators can end up costing the organization much more than what an external investigation does in the long run.

First, the internal investigation can give rise to someone complaining that the investigator was biased. And, if that is the new complaint then an external investigation will be requested and necessary adding to the costs already expended on the internal investigator (even if this person is not paid someone else has to perform his/her duties while they are investigating).

Secondly, most internal investigations for some reason are in favor of the organization which leads to loss of trust, and less likelihood of people (targets and witnesses) divulging the truth.  People tend to take the course of least resistance and to go  with the winning team.  If workers perceive that the organization always wins in these types of investigations, they will either not be a witness or they (if a target) will back down.

When either of these two instances occur, the pain does not go away it just lies dormant or festers until an eruption occurs causing either: a lawsuit, chaos in working relations, or acts of violence, including sabotage of  items/information valuable to the organization, and loss of productivity due to passive aggressive retaliation on the organization, illnesses, and or worker compensation’s cases filed. But an external investigator offers the following:

Advantages of contracting an external investigator are:

They have nothing to be gained by their conclusions and are not vested in any party or allegiances

  • They are experienced and knowledgeable in the area of organizational conflicts
  • They can be used to guide and counsel internal investigators; thus monitoring whether bias is occurring
  • Adept at intervention referrals for targets who need counseling
  • Are not afraid nor timid regarding full engagement in what often is confrontational territory
  • Attuned to when mediation may be possible early on thus avoiding potential lawsuits

(note: Marilyn is the author of the #1 Bully Boss book on Amazon for the past year since being published in June 2009 found at this link:  She is available for organizations as a consultant, investigator, shadow consultant, speaker, cultural informant. She can be contacted via the following methods):

email: websites: and

cell:      323 594 9014                                        

Twitter:  DoRightAtWork and a.k.a. Dr_Vee, Linked in and Plaxo


Hoel, H., Cooper, C.L. (2000a), Working with victims of workplace bullying, in H. Kemshall and J. Pritchard (eds) ‘Good Practice in Working with Victims of  violence’, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, pp. 101-108.

Schein, B. (1996) Organizational Culture and Leadership (2nd edn), San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Unison (2000) Police Staff Bullying Report (number 1777), in Rayner, C. ‘Workplace Bullying: What we know, who is to blame and what can we do?’ London: Taylor & Francis.

Rayner, C. (2002). Workplace Bullying: What we know, who is to blame and what can we do?’ London: Taylor & Francis.